This issue brief articulates the unintended consequences that tax reform, alongside proposed federal funding cuts, could have on the nonprofit human service sector. This issue brief articulates the link between the social and economic determinants of health as a greater influence on overall health and well-being, as compared to clinical health care. This issue brief describes the impact of adverse childhood experiences on health care spending. As federal and state governments work to improve health outcomes and reduce health care costs, efforts must be guided by data and science.